Understanding Stress Injuries, Trauma, Grief and PTSD

What is Stress Injury?

Stress injury is the term used by the military in Combat and Operational Stress First Aid and adopted by many first responder agencies to describe occupational injuries that occur in the presence of overwhelming stress and exposure to psychological stress in the line of duty (professional or volunteer).

While Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is often used synonymously with stress injuries, occupational stress injuries occur on a continuum, with both early and late changing effects of stress exposure. PTSD often represents later changing reactions.

Early changes of stress in the arc of the career may include a change from earlier engagement, wanting to avoid or dreading work, starting to isolate, loss of vitality, loss of creativity or desire to engage.

Anyone can be injured. Like other injury types, stress injuries are best supported when recognized early and mitigated.

We’re here to offer tools and a community of support.

Learn more about the Stress Injuries and the continuum here


Trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event like an accident or natural disaster. Immediately after the event, shock and denial are typical. Longer term reactions include unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships and even physical symptoms like headaches or nausea. While these feelings are normal, some people have difficulty moving on with their lives. Psychologists can help these individuals find constructive ways of managing their emotions.

“Trauma.” Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

How do I Cope?

Fortunately, research shows that most people are resilient and over time are able to bounce back from tragedy. It is common for people to experience stress in the immediate aftermath, but within a few months most people are able to resume functioning as they did prior to the disaster. It is important to remember that resilience and recovery are the norm, not prolonged distress.

There are a number of steps you can take to build emotional well-being and gain a sense of control following a disaster, including the following:

  • Give yourself time to adjust. Anticipate that this will be a difficult time in your life. Allow yourself to mourn the losses you have experienced and try to be patient with changes in your emotional state.
  • Ask for support from people who care about you and who will listen and empathize with your situation. Social support is a key component to disaster recovery. Family and friends can be an important resource. You can find support and common ground from those who’ve also survived the disaster. You may also want to reach out to others not involved who may be able to provide greater support and objectivity.
  • Communicate your experience. Express what you are feeling in whatever ways feel comfortable to you — such as talking with family or close friends, keeping a diary or engaging in a creative activity (e.g., drawing, molding clay, etc.).
  • Find a local support group led by appropriately trained and experienced professionals. Support groups are frequently available for survivors. Group discussion can help you realize that you are not alone in your reactions and emotions. Support group meetings can be especially helpful for people with limited personal support systems.
  • Engage in healthy behaviors to enhance your ability to cope with excessive stress. Eat well-balanced meals and get plenty of rest. If you experience ongoing difficulties with sleep, you may be able to find some relief through relaxation techniques. Avoid alcohol and drugs because they can be a numbing diversion that could detract from as well as delay active coping and moving forward from the disaster.
  • Establish or reestablish routines. This can include eating meals at regular times, sleeping and waking on a regular cycle, or following an exercise program. Build in some positive routines to have something to look forward to during these distressing times, like pursuing a hobby, walking through an attractive park or neighborhood, or reading a good book.
  • Avoid making major life decisions. Switching careers or jobs and other important decisions tend to be highly stressful in their own right and even harder to take on when you’re recovering from a disaster.

In addition to these recommendations, APA’s Road to Resilience brochure describes steps that you can take to build resilience — the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress.

“Recovering Emotionally from Disaster.” Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.


What Is Grief ?

Grief is the acute pain that accompanies loss. It is deep, because it is a reflection of what we love, and it can feel all-encompassing. Grief can follow the loss of a loved one, but it is not limited to people; it can follow the loss of a treasured animal companion, the loss of a job or other important role in life, the loss of a home or of other possessions of significant emotional investment. It often occurs after a divorce.

Grief is complex; it obeys no formula and has no set expiration date. It is an important area of ongoing research. While some experts have proposed that there are stages of grief—denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance—others emphasize that grief is a very individualized emotion and not everyone grieves the same way.

Grief is sometimes compounded by feelings of guilt and confusion over a loss, especially if the relationship was difficult. Some individuals experience prolonged grief, sometimes called complicated grief, which can last months or years. Without help and support, such grief can lead to isolation and chronic loneliness.

Many of the symptoms of grief overlap with those of depression. There is sadness, often loss of the capacity for pleasure; insomnia; and loss of interest in eating or taking care of oneself. But the symptoms of grief tend to lessen over time, although they may be temporarily reactivated by important anniversaries or thoughts of the loss at any time. And unlike depression, grief does not usually impair a sense of self-worth. Continue reading..


Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been through a traumatic event. A traumatic event is something terrible and scary that you see, hear about, or that happens to you.

To learn more about PTSD take a look at this handout Understanding PTSD

“PTSD: National Center for PTSD.” What Is PTSD? –. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.